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271.Encode-and-Decode-Strings

271. Encode and Decode Strings

题目地址

题目描述

Design an algorithm to encode a list of strings to a string. The encoded string is then sent over the network and is decoded back to the original list of strings.
​
Machine 1 (sender) has the function:
​
string encode(vector<string> strs) {
// ... your code
return encoded_string;
}
Machine 2 (receiver) has the function:
vector<string> decode(string s) {
//... your code
return strs;
}
So Machine 1 does:
​
string encoded_string = encode(strs);
and Machine 2 does:
​
vector<string> strs2 = decode(encoded_string);
strs2 in Machine 2 should be the same as strs in Machine 1.
​
Implement the encode and decode methods.
​
Note:
The string may contain any possible characters out of 256 valid ascii characters. Your algorithm should be generalized enough to work on any possible characters.
Do not use class member/global/static variables to store states. Your encode and decode algorithms should be stateless.
Do not rely on any library method such as eval or serialize methods. You should implement your own encode/decode algorithm.

代码

Approach #1 Non-ASCII Delimiter

Time: O(1) && Space: O(1)
public class Codec {
​
// Encodes a list of strings to a single string.
public String encode(List<String> strs) {
if (strs.size() == 0) {
return Character.toString((char)258);
}
​
String d = Character.toString((char)257);
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
for (String s: strs) {
sb.append(s);
sb.append(d);
}
sb.deleteCharAt(sb.length() - 1);
return sb.toString();
}
​
// Decodes a single string to a list of strings.
public List<String> decode(String s) {
String d = Character.toString((char)258);
if (s.equals(d)) {
return new ArrayList();
}
​
d = Character.toString((char)257);
return Arrays.asList(s.split(d, -1));
}
}
​
// Your Codec object will be instantiated and called as such:
// Codec codec = new Codec();
// codec.decode(codec.encode(strs));

Approach #2 Chunked Transfer Encoding

class Codec {
public String encode(List<String> strs) {
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
for (String s: strs) {
sb.append(intToString(s));
sb.append(s);
}
return sb.toString();
}
​
private String intToString(String s) {
int x = s.length();
char[] bytes = new char[4];
for (int i = 3; i >= 0; i--) {
bytes[3 - i] = (char) (x >> (i * 8) & 0xff);
}
return new String(bytes);
}
​
private int stringToInt(String bytesStr) {
int result = 0;
for (char b: bytesStr.toCharArray())
result = (result << 8) + (int)b;
​
return result;
}
​
public List<String> decode(String s) {
int i = 0;
int n = s.length();
List<String> output = new ArrayList();
while (i < n) {
int length = stringToInt(s.substring(i, i + 4));
i += 4;
output.add(s.substring(i, i + length));
i += length;
}
​
return output;
}
}